With an HR Consultant who has fifteen years of professional experience acquired in management positions in the health sector, Phénicia Conseil provides its clients with effective support in the search for talent adapted to the functions dedicated to the health industry sector.

Presentation of the sector

The pandemic has highlighted the great shortage of human resources in the health sector in Africa. With life expectancy and health expenditure below the global level, Africa needs more doctors and health professionals than ever before.

 It is pertinent today to note that without a good health system, no country can develop. It may be hard to think about studying medicine for a long time, but it always pays off, especially in an African context where the health sector needs to be upgraded.  Today, people, especially in rural areas, face great difficulties in accessing adequate health coverage.

Learning from the health crisis, several countries have decided to reform their health systems, offering employment opportunities to many young people, as these policies are implemented by governments, or in collaboration with them, in most cases.  Nowadays, with technology, there are many mobile applications and startups working in the field. Some major African capitals are even becoming major healthcare hubs in their geographical areas in Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, Senegal, Botswana and South Africa…

37 countries in sub-Saharan Africa produce medicines. These are producers or distributors of generic medicines, including a leading company in Ghana that produces 30 basic medicines (antibiotics, antimalarials, antiretrovirals).

These companies usually produce under license, as few African pharmaceutical industries can afford to develop patents that require expensive research and testing procedures. It is necessary to recall the context of health on the African continent: There are two hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants, compare   to 53 beds in Europe, and 70% of the medical equipment does not function properly. One child in ten does not reach the age of five. Social security is rare.

The fight against malaria has achieved notable successes,

HIV-AIDS is declining, and health coverage is expanding in Rwanda and Ghana. Private mutual insurance companies are being founded. The telecommunication revolution is also supporting health, with provincial health workers communicating with hospital specialists at a distance.

NGOs use these networks for rural health and health awareness campaigns. This approach has proven to be very effective in Nigeria in preventing the spread of Ebola.

However, the public health care offer remains insufficient and half of the health expenses are of private origin. In the majority of cases, it is necessary to pay for care, or even medicines, at the public hospital. Finally, the flight of talent particularly affects the medical sector: 15% of Tanzanian doctors work outside Africa.

Jobs, training and diplomas:


Pharmaceutical Sales Representative

An essential link in the pharmaceutical industry, the pharmaceutical representative, or sales representative, is responsible for negotiating (price/volume, sales conditions, delivery times) and selling the products in the range. He/she draws up a sectoral action plan (targeting, means, promotional tools) based on national and regional objectives, sets the price, issues the order form, negotiates the volumes, the delivery method and time in compliance with the laboratory’s procedures.


Education and qualifications:

Pharmaceutical companies mainly recruit graduates with 2/3 years of higher education (BTS, BUT in particular) with a scientific background.
Specializ d schools providing theoretical and practical training in a few months, after the baccalaureate, also prepare for this profession.


Hospital Director:

Responsible for the administrative and financial management of the hospital, the Director ensures the smooth running of his establishment. He or she participates in the design and management of the hospital’s project, ensuring that the services are well organised. 80% of hospital directors are not heads of establishment, even if they have the same functions. The primary mission of the hospital director is to make the best use of the budget. This leads him to make arbitrations and choices, sometimes difficult ones, in consultation with the medical teams.


Education and qualifications:

To become a hospital director, candidates with at least a bachelor’s degree must complete a 24-month theoretical and practical training course at the École des hautes études en santé publique. This training is only accessible by competitive examination.


Hospital Engineer:

The hospital engineers carry out the work projects decided by the hospital management. They are involved at all stages of the project. They first carry out the preliminary studies, then finalise the implementation programme and oversee its proper execution. Hospital engineers also participate in the choice of equipment, including medical equipment, and are involved in its installation and implementation. They are responsible for the proper functioning of the equipment and ensure its maintenance.


Education and qualifications:

The job o hospital engineer is accessible from higher education courses from Bac +2 to Bac +4, in the scientific, technical or industrial field. However, professional experience in the field is  essential in order to acquire the skills and technical knowledge that are essential for this job. Access is possible through internal promotion or external mobility, often following additional training. Diplomas from engineering schools or postgraduate studies are required. Recruitment is at doctoral level for highly specialised fields. In addition, recruitment is by competitive examination open to officials and other staff with at least four years’ effective service in a post classified in category B.



The surgeon works in the operating room with a medical team, composed of specialized nurses and anesthesiologists. During the operation, he/she performs operating procedures: probes, incisions, punctures, etc., which vary according to the nature of the pathology and respect a very strict protocol. Given the technical complexity of the profession and the subject, these masters of the scalpel may specialise in certain disciplines: ENT surgery, neurosurgery, orthopaedics, reconstructive surgery, paediatrics, cardiology, digestive tract surgery, etc.


Education and qualifications:

It takes about ten years to become a surgeon after high school.
From 2020, registration for health studies is now done on Parcoursup: baccalaureate holders can choose a degree including a “health access” option (L.AS) or a specific health access pathway (PASS).
It then takes two years to obtain the DFGSM (diploma of general training in medical sciences) and another three years for the DFASM (diploma of advanced training in medical sciences) at master level.
Medical students take the ECN, the classical national tests, at the end of the 6th year. According to their rank in this exam, students choose their specialty.



This heart specialist is responsible for the screening, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these pathologies. He or she performs various tests or examinations on the patient (electrocardiogram, stress tests, etc.), then analyses the results and makes a diagnosis. The cardiologist may be required to organize the medical care of a person in a state of emergency. If necessary, he/she prescribes medication and treatment, gives advice on lifestyle (diet, physical activity, etc.), and refers the patient to a surgical service when necessary.


Education and qualifications:

As a doctor, the cardiologist has completed all the stages of medical studies. At the end of the national examinations, the future practitioner will be able to choose to specialize in cardiology if his rank of exit allows it. He will have to follow a training of 4 or 5 additional years, including many training courses. His skills will be validated by a DES (diploma of specialized studies) and he will have to defend a thesis before a jury to obtain his final diploma.




A bit like a general practitioner, the veterinarian receives animals in his office in order to treat or prevent diseases: he administers vaccines, diagnoses diseases, operates and prescribes prescriptions. He can also give advice to owners on hygiene, diet or physical activities. In short, he follows the animal throughout its life.

Education and qualifications

To become a veterinarian, you must be a graduate of one of the four French veterinary schools. The studies last 5 years and lead to the State diploma of veterinary doctor. These schools are accessible by competitive examination and are open to holders of a Bac+2 or Bac+3.
However, a new pathway to the national veterinary schools was created in 2020, entitled “Première Année Commune aux Écoles Nationales Vétérinaires” (PACENV). These 4 schools are now accessible to baccalaureate holders on Parcoursup.



The gynecologist-obstetrician accompanies and controls the pregnancy of the pregnant woman, during regular visits. He is attentive to the development of the child. In particular, he ensures that the cervix remains well closed, and carries out examinations of the foetus to detect the risks of malformation. To this end, he performs several ultrasounds on the mother-to-be and, after a few months, he can identify the sex of the baby… He also monitors his patient’s clinical condition. Thus, he takes her blood pressure, follows her weight curve, prescribes a diet if necessary… If he practices his art in a hospital or clinic, he will supervise the delivery, often carried out by a midwife. If there is the slightest problem, he intervenes: epidural (local anaesthetic), incision of the perineum, caesarean section… He also monitors the consequences of the birth on the mother’s health.

Education and qualifications:

As a doctor, the gynaecologist-obstetrician has passed all the stages of medical studies. After 6 years of basic training, the medical student takes the national competitive examination and it is his or her ranking at the end of this examination that will determine the possibility of accessing the specialisation in gynaecology-obstetrics, which takes 4 or 5 years and includes numerous internships.


Dental surgeon:

The dental surgeon is a practitioner specialized in the care of the oral sphere. He has a very versatile activity: dental care, tooth extraction, radiology, surgery, check-ups, scaling, prevention, etc. He is a key player in public health in his daily work.

Education and qualifications:

The dental surgeon is a practitioner specialized in the care of the oral sphere. He has a very versatile activity: dental care, tooth extraction, radiology, surgery, check-ups, scaling, prevention, etc. He is a key player in public health in his daily work.



The most common pathologies (acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin cysts, suspicious moles, oral or genital herpes, etc.) are treated directly in the dermatologist’s office. The diagnoses he makes, the treatments he prescribes and the in-depth examinations he recommends to be carried out in hospital, in a specialised department, concern all age groups, from infants to the elderly.

Education and qualifications:

As a doctor, the dermatologist has completed all the stages of the classical medical curriculum. After the six years of “basic” training, the future practitioner must pass the National Classifying Examinations. The ranking at the end of the ECN determines the possibility of choosing the specialty of dermatology. This is the subject of a 4 or 5 year training course which includes numerous internships in hospital departments and leads to a DES (diploma of specialized studies) which validates the specialty of dermatology-venereology. After the DES and a thesis defense before a jury, the applicant obtains the State Diploma of Doctor of Medicine.


Pharmaceutical Development Consultant:

He sets up the shelves and windows to display the products, and designs clear and efficient signage. His goal: to meet the needs of customers by optimizing the sales space, to serve the interests of the company he represents. He also takes charge of developing a customer action plan based on the potential of each sales area. Then, he will organize animations adapted to these spaces.

Education and qualifications:

The job of pharmaceutical development advisor is accessible to holders of a professional degree or, with a 2-year degree, to graduates of an IUT or BTS in sales management or marketing. Training in the pharmaceutical field is also appreciated. There are also targeted merchandising courses (internships and one-year training courses). But the apprenticeship of the function is mainly carried out in the company, by taking successive responsibilities in merchandising.

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